Auxin signaling: Research advances over the past 30 years

J Integr Plant Biol. 2022 Feb;64(2):371-392. doi: 10.1111/jipb.13225.


Auxin, one of the first identified and most widely studied phytohormones, has been and will remain a hot topic in plant biology. After more than a century of passionate exploration, the mysteries of its synthesis, transport, signaling, and metabolism have largely been unlocked. Due to the rapid development of new technologies, new methods, and new genetic materials, the study of auxin has entered the fast lane over the past 30 years. Here, we highlight advances in understanding auxin signaling, including auxin perception, rapid auxin responses, TRANSPORT INHIBITOR RESPONSE 1 and AUXIN SIGNALING F-boxes (TIR1/AFBs)-mediated transcriptional and non-transcriptional branches, and the epigenetic regulation of auxin signaling. We also focus on feedback inhibition mechanisms that prevent the over-amplification of auxin signals. In addition, we cover the TRANSMEMBRANE KINASE-mediated non-canonical signaling, which converges with TIR1/AFBs-mediated transcriptional regulation to coordinate plant growth and development. The identification of additional auxin signaling components and their regulation will continue to open new avenues of research in this field, leading to an increasingly deeper, more comprehensive understanding of how auxin signals are interpreted at the cellular level to regulate plant growth and development.

Keywords: TIR1/AFB-mediated auxin signaling; acid growth; auxin perception; epigenetic regulation; non-transcriptional auxin signaling; rapid auxin response; root growth inhibition.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Arabidopsis Proteins* / metabolism
  • Arabidopsis* / metabolism
  • Epigenesis, Genetic
  • F-Box Proteins* / genetics
  • F-Box Proteins* / metabolism
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Plant
  • Indoleacetic Acids / metabolism
  • Plant Growth Regulators / metabolism
  • Receptors, Cell Surface / metabolism


  • Arabidopsis Proteins
  • F-Box Proteins
  • Indoleacetic Acids
  • Plant Growth Regulators
  • Receptors, Cell Surface