Novel Genetic Discoveries in Primary Immunodeficiency Disorders

Clin Rev Allergy Immunol. 2022 Aug;63(1):55-74. doi: 10.1007/s12016-021-08881-2. Epub 2022 Jan 12.


The field of Immunology is one that has undergone great expansion in recent years. With the advent of new diagnostic modalities including a variety of genetic tests (discussed elsewhere in this journal), the ability to diagnose a patient with a primary immunodeficiency disorder (PIDD) has become a more streamlined process. With increased availability of genetic testing for those with suspected or known PIDD, there has been a significant increase in the number of genes associated with this group of disorders. This is of great importance as a misdiagnosis of these rare diseases can lead to a delay in what can be critical treatment options. At times, those options can include life-saving medications or procedures. Presentation of patients with PIDD can vary greatly based on the specific genetic defect and the part(s) of the immune system that is affected by the variation. PIDD disorders lead to varying levels of increased risk of infection ranging from a mild increase such as with selective IgA deficiency to a profound risk with severe combined immunodeficiency. These diseases can also cause a variety of other clinical findings including autoimmunity and gastrointestinal disease.

Keywords: Genetic testing; Genetics; Immune dysregulation; Inborn errors of immunity.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Autoimmunity / genetics
  • Genetic Testing
  • Humans
  • IgA Deficiency* / complications
  • Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes* / diagnosis
  • Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes* / genetics
  • Primary Immunodeficiency Diseases* / diagnosis
  • Primary Immunodeficiency Diseases* / genetics