Dynamic susceptibility contrast-MRI parameters, ADC values, and the T2-FLAIR mismatch sign are useful to differentiate between H3-mutant and H3-wild-type high-grade midline glioma

Eur Radiol. 2022 Jun;32(6):3672-3682. doi: 10.1007/s00330-021-08476-7. Epub 2022 Jan 13.


Objectives: Diffuse midline gliomas, H3K27-altered (DMG-A), are malignant gliomas with an unfavorable prognosis. Knowledge of dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC) MRI findings and imaging differences with high-grade midline glioma without H3K27 alteration (DMG-W) has been limited. We compared the DSC, ADC, and conventional MRI findings between DMG-A and DMG-W.

Methods: In this single institutional retrospective study, the electronic database of our hospital between June 2015 and May 2021 was searched. Twenty and 17 patients with DMG-A (median, 13 years; range, 3-52 years; 11 females) and DMG-W (median, 40 years; 7-73 years; 9 females), respectively, were found. Normalized relative cerebral blood flow (nrCBF) and normalized corrected relative cerebral blood volume (ncrCBV); normalized maximum, mean, and minimum ADC values; and the prevalence of T2-FLAIR mismatch sign were compared between the two groups using Mann-Whitney U tests and Fisher's exact test.

Results: The nrCBF and ncrCBV were significantly lower in DMG-A compared with DMG-W (nrCBF: median 0.88 [range, 0.19-2.67] vs. 1.47 [range, 0.57-4.90] (p < 0.001); ncrCBV: 1.17 [0.20-2.67] vs. 1.56 [0.60-4.03] (p = 0.008)). Normalized maximum ADC (nADCmax) was significantly higher in DMG-A (median 2.37 [1.25-3.98] vs. 1.95 [1.23-2.77], p = 0.02). T2-FLAIR mismatch sign was significantly more common in DMG-A (11/20 (55.0%) vs. 1/17 (5.9%), p = 0.0017). When at least two of nrCBF < 1.11, nADCmax ≥ 2.48, and T2-FLAIR mismatch sign were positive, the diagnostic performance was the highest with accuracy of 0.81.

Conclusion: DSC-MRI parameters, ADC values, and the T2-FLAIR mismatch sign are useful to differentiate between DMG-A and DMG-W.

Key points: • Diffuse midline glioma, H3K27-altered (DMG-A), showed a significantly lower normalized relative cerebral blood flow and volume compared with H3K27-wild-type counterparts (DMG-W). • T2-fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) mismatch sign was significantly more frequent in DMG-A compared to DMG-W. • Indicators that combined DSC parameters, ADC values, and T2-FLAIR mismatch sign, with or without age, are useful to distinguish the two tumors.

Keywords: Child; Diffusion magnetic resonance imaging; Glioblastoma; Perfusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging.

MeSH terms

  • Brain Neoplasms* / diagnostic imaging
  • Brain Neoplasms* / genetics
  • Brain Neoplasms* / pathology
  • Female
  • Glioma* / diagnostic imaging
  • Glioma* / genetics
  • Glioma* / pathology
  • Humans
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods
  • Mutation
  • Retrospective Studies