Case presentation: Arboviruses primarily consist of RNA, which favours greater genetic plasticity, with a higher frequency of mutations that allow the virus to adapt to different hosts. The initial symptomatology is nonspecific, in that the patient can present fever, myalgia, arthralgia, rash and headache. This makes a clinical diagnosis using laboratory tests difficult and time-consuming. In Brazil, the main arboviruses involved in epidemics belong to the family Flaviviridae. The patient in this case is from the municipality of São Bernardo do Campo, an area endemic for arboviruses. He presented symptoms of fever, myalgia and headache.
Results: The multiplex assay for arboviruses detected genetic material from the dengue 2 and yellow fever viruses.
Conclusion: This result confirms the importance of molecular tests showing high sensitivity and specificity that can assist clinical diagnosis, particularly in endemic areas during periods of outbreak for other arboviruses, like the epidemiological picture in Brazil in 2018, when significant co-circulation of dengue virus and yellow fever virus occurred. The presence of co-circulating arboviruses increases the chance of coinfection and demonstrates the importance of differential diagnosis.
Keywords: arbovirus infections and diagnosis; coinfection.
© 2021 The Authors.