Crotonylation sensitizes IAPi-induced disruption of latent HIV by enhancing p100 cleavage into p52

iScience. 2021 Dec 18;25(1):103649. doi: 10.1016/j.isci.2021.103649. eCollection 2022 Jan 21.


The eradication of HIV infection is difficult to achieve because of stable viral reservoirs. Here, we show that crotonylation enhances AZD5582-induced noncanonical NF-κB (ncNF-κB) signaling, further augmenting HIV latency reversal in Jurkat and U1 cell line models of latency, HIV latently infected primary CD4+ T cells and resting CD4+ T cells isolated from people living with HIV. Crotonylation upregulated the levels of the active p52 subunit of NF-κB following AZD5582. Biochemical analyses suggest that the ubiquitin E3 ligase TRIM27 is involved in enhanced p100 cleavage to p52. When TRIM27 was depleted, AZD5582-induced HIV latency reversal was reduced. TRIM27 small interfering RNA (siRNA) knockdown reduced both p100 and p52 levels without inhibiting p100 transcription, indicating that TRIM27 not only acts on p100 cleavage but also may impact p100/p52 stability. These observations reveal the complexity of HIV transcriptional machinery, particularly of NF-κB.

Keywords: Immunology; Virology.