The Scale of Ethnic Experience long and short forms in Spanish and English: Psychometric findings from the HCHS/SOL Sociocultural Ancillary Study

Cultur Divers Ethnic Minor Psychol. 2022 Oct;28(4):503-512. doi: 10.1037/cdp0000508. Epub 2022 Jan 13.


Objective: To evaluate the psychometric properties and cross-group equivalence of scores from Spanish and English long and short forms of the Scale of Ethnic Experience (SEE; Malcarne et al., 2006) in a multisite representative cohort from the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL) Sociocultural Ancillary Study.

Method: Hispanic/Latino adults (N = 5,313) completed a battery of measures, including the original 32-item SEE, in their preferred language of Spanish or English. A 12-item version of the SEE, comprised of three items representing each of the four original subscales, was created and evaluated for invariance across language and self-identified heritage (Mexican, Puerto Rican, Cuban, Central American, Dominican, and South American). Internal consistency reliability and convergent/discriminant validity of the subscales were also evaluated.

Results: Results of confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) did not support the four-subscale structure of the original 32-item SEE (Ethnic Identity, Perceived Discrimination, Social Affiliation, and Mainstream Comfort). Multigroup CFA supported the structural invariance of the SEE-Short Form across language and heritage groups. Patterns for convergent and discriminant validity were generally within expected effect sizes and directions, and consistent across language and heritage.

Conclusions: Psychometric findings support the utility of the newly developed 12-item short form of the SEE for measuring multiple dimensions of ethnic experience in Hispanic/Latino adults in the United States. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved).

MeSH terms

  • Factor Analysis, Statistical
  • Hispanic or Latino*
  • Humans
  • Language*
  • Psychometrics
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • United States