There are no studies comparing the prognosis for mature T-cell lymphoma (TCL) in people with HIV (PWH) to people without HIV (PWoH) and to AIDS-defining B-cell lymphomas (A-BCLs) in the modern antiretroviral therapy era. North American AIDS Cohort Collaboration on Research and Design and Comprehensive Oncology Measures for Peripheral T-cell Lymphoma Treatment are cohorts that enroll patients diagnosed with HIV and TCL, respectively. In our study, 52, 64, 101, 500, and 246 PWH with histologic confirmation of TCL, primary central nervous system lymphoma, Burkitt's lymphoma, diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), and Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL), respectively, and 450 TCLs without HIV were eligible for analysis. At the time of TCL diagnosis, anaplastic large-cell lymphoma (ALCL) was the most common TCL subtype within PWH. Although PWH with TCL diagnosed between 1996 and 2009 experienced a low 5-year survival probability at 0.23 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.13, 0.41), we observed a marked improvement in their survival when diagnosed between 2010 and 2016 (0.69; 95% CI: 0.48, 1; P = .04) in contrast to TCLs among PWoH (0.45; 95% CI: 0.41, 0.51; P = .53). Similarly, PWH with ALCLs diagnosed between 1996 and 2009 were associated with a conspicuously inferior 5-year survival probability (0.17; 95% CI: 0.07, 0.42) and consistently lagged behind A-BCL subtypes such as Burkitt's (0.43; 95% CI:0.33, 0.57; P = .09) and DLBCL (0.17; 95% CI: 0.06, 0.46; P = .11) and behind HL (0.57; 95% CI: 0.50, 0.65; P < .0001). Despite a small number, those diagnosed between 2010 and 2016 experienced a remarkable improvement in survival (0.67; 95% CI: 0.3, 1) in comparison with PWoH (0.76; 95% CI: 0.66, 0.87; P = .58). Thus, our analysis confirms improved overall survival for aggressive B- and T-cell malignancies among PWH in the last decade.
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