Ginseng in vascular dysfunction: A review of therapeutic potentials and molecular mechanisms

Phytother Res. 2022 Feb;36(2):857-872. doi: 10.1002/ptr.7369. Epub 2022 Jan 13.


Vascular dysfunction can lead to a variety of fatal diseases, including cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, metabolic syndrome, and cancer. Although a large number of studies have reported the therapeutic effects of natural compounds on vascular-related diseases, ginseng is still the focus of research. Ginseng and its active substances have bioactive effects against different diseases with vascular dysfunction. In this review, we summarized the key molecular mechanisms and signaling pathways of ginseng, its different active ingredients or formula in the prevention and treatment of vascular-related diseases, including cardiac-cerebral vascular diseases, hypertension, diabetes complications, and cancer. Moreover, the bidirectional roles of ginseng in promoting or inhibiting angiogenesis have been highlighted. We systematically teased out the relationship between ginseng and vascular dysfunction, which could provide a basis for the clinical application of ginseng in the future.

Keywords: ginseng; vascular dysfunction; vascular endothelial cells; vascular smooth muscle cells.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Humans
  • Hypertension* / drug therapy
  • Panax*
  • Signal Transduction