Prenatal diagnosis of mucopolysaccharidoses type II by two-dimensional electrophoresis and mass spectrometry in amniotic fluid

J Obstet Gynaecol Res. 2022 Mar;48(3):682-687. doi: 10.1111/jog.15135. Epub 2022 Jan 13.


Aim: To introduce a quantitative determination of heparan sulfate and dermatan sulfate by mass spectrometry and to compare it with two-dimensional electrophoresis of the glycosaminoglycans in the amniotic fluid for the prenatal diagnosis of mucopolysaccharidoses type II (MPS II).

Methods: Thirty pregnancies each with single fetus were subjected to amniocentesis at 16 weeks: 10 with a previously affected MPS II infant and 20 as controls. Prenatal diagnosis was done by both mass spectrometry two two-dimensional electrophoresis.

Results: Two-dimensional electrophoresis showed four affected with MPS II and six unaffected fetuses. Mass spectrometry verified these results.

Conclusion: Two-dimensional electrophoresis of the glycosaminoglycans in amniotic fluid is a good qualitative method and mass spectrometry is a new accurate quantitative method for prenatal diagnosis of MPS II. Quantitative determination of glycosaminoglycans in amniotic fluid by mass spectrometry is both rapid and accurate. Prenatal diagnosis is recommended for at risk pregnancies and mass spectrometry offers speed and quantitation.

Keywords: amniocentesis; mass spectrometry; prenatal diagnosis of mucopolysaccharidoses type II; two-dimensional electrophoresis.

MeSH terms

  • Amniotic Fluid / chemistry
  • Electrophoresis
  • Female
  • Glycosaminoglycans / analysis
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Mass Spectrometry
  • Mucopolysaccharidoses* / diagnosis
  • Pregnancy
  • Prenatal Diagnosis


  • Glycosaminoglycans