Apnoeic oxygenation in morbid obesity: a randomised controlled trial comparing facemask and high-flow nasal oxygen delivery

Br J Anaesth. 2022 Jan 11;S0007-0912(21)00800-X. doi: 10.1016/j.bja.2021.12.011. Online ahead of print.

Abstract

Background: Obesity is a risk factor for airway-related incidents during anaesthesia. High-flow nasal oxygen has been advocated to improve safety in high-risk groups, but its effectiveness in the obese population is uncertain. This study compared the effect of high-flow nasal oxygen and low-flow facemask oxygen delivery on duration of apnoea in morbidly obese patients.

Methods: Morbidly obese patients undergoing bariatric surgery were randomly allocated to receive either high-flow nasal (70 L min-1) or facemask (15 L min-1) oxygen. After induction of anaesthesia, the patients were apnoeic for 18 min or until peripheral oxygen saturation decreased to 92%.

Results: Eighty patients were studied (41 High-Flow Nasal Oxygen, 39 Facemask). The median apnoea time was 18 min in both the High-Flow Nasal Oxygen (IQR 18-18 min) and the Facemask (inter-quartile range [IQR], 4.1-18 min) groups. Five patients in the High-Flow Nasal Oxygen group and 14 patients in the Facemask group desaturated to 92% within 18 min. The risk of desaturation was significantly lower in the High-Flow Nasal Oxygen group (hazard ratio=0.27; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.11-0.65; P=0.007).

Conclusions: In experienced hands, apnoeic oxygenation is possible in morbidly obese patients, and oxygen desaturation did not occur for 18 min in the majority of patients, whether oxygen delivery was high-flow nasal or low-flow facemask. High-flow nasal oxygen may reduce desaturation risk compared with facemask oxygen. Desaturation risk is a more clinically relevant outcome than duration of apnoea. Individual physiological factors are likely to be the primary determinant of risk rather than method of oxygen delivery.

Clinical trial registration: NCT03428256.

Keywords: THRIVE; apnoeic oxygenation; apnoeic ventilation; bariatric anaesthesia; desaturation risk; high-flow nasal oxygen; obesity; safe apnoea time.

Associated data

  • ClinicalTrials.gov/NCT03428256