The Effects of Hedgehog Signaling Pathway on the Proliferation and Apoptosis of Melanoma Cells

J Oncol. 2022 Jan 4;2022:4984866. doi: 10.1155/2022/4984866. eCollection 2022.

Abstract

Background: Studies have found that the abnormality of the Hedgehog signaling pathway is related to the occurrence and development of a variety of tumors, but the effect of this signaling pathway on melanoma cells is still unclear.

Methods: This study aimed to discuss the effect of Hedgehog signaling pathway on the proliferation and apoptosis of human malignant melanoma A375 cells and explore its possible mechanism in the proliferation and apoptosis of melanoma cells. Different concentrations of Hedgehog signaling pathway inhibitor cyclopamine (5, 10, 20 and 40 μM) were used to treat human melanoma A375 cells for 24, 48, and 72 h, and set a blank control group (0 μM). Trypan blue cell counting method was used to detect cell viability. MTT method was used to detect the inhibition rate of cell proliferation. Transwell was used to detect cell invasion, and flow cytometry was used to detect cell apoptosis.

Results: Through the trypan blue cell counting method and MTT experiment, it was found that the Hedgehog signaling pathway inhibitor cyclopamine has an inhibitory effect on the proliferation and viability of melanoma A375 cells (P < 0.05), and the proliferation inhibitory effect is enhanced with prolonged action time in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Transwell experiment showed that compared with the blank control group, the invasion and migration ability of the treated melanoma A375 cells are significantly reduced, and the difference is statistically significant (P < 0.05). Cell apoptosis experiment showed that compared with the blank control group, the apoptosis rate of A375 cells is significantly higher after treated by 40 μM cyclopamine for 24 h, and the difference is statistically significant (P < 0.05). Gli1 and Bcl-2 protein are highly expressed in melanoma A375 cells, and their expressions show a downward trend (P < 0.05) after being treated by cyclopamine.

Conclusion: Cyclopamine inhibits cell proliferation and induces cell apoptosis by downregulating Gli1. Hedgehog signaling pathway can be used as a new target for the treatment of malignant melanoma, and multiple measures can be used to inhibit the signaling pathway to achieve a therapeutic effect.