Cancer testis antigen XAGE-1 is a promising marker for the diagnosis and treatment of ovarian cancer

J Med Life. Sep-Oct 2021;14(5):710-715. doi: 10.25122/jml-2021-0304.


Cancer testis antigens have been discovered in various cancers, and several studies have suggested that since they exhibit such distinct patterns of expression, these antigens might be attractive targets for cancer detection and immunotherapy. Our work attempted to clarify the function played by cancer-testis antigens in ovarian cancers, notably in the XAGE1 gene. The investigation was conducted on 74 tissue samples from newly diagnosed patients with ovarian cancer. The control group included twenty-eight benign ovarian tumors. The expression of XAGE1 mRNA was assessed using RT-PCR. Compared to benign tumors, cancer samples exhibited higher levels of XAGE1 gene expression, which was statistically significant (P0.01). There were no statistically significant differences between menopausal status and family history. Gene expression was substantially connected with age groups as the higher level of gene expression in patients 50-74 years of age (P 0.01) was seen. Mucinous tumors exhibited significant correlations (P0.01) across histopathological tumor types. In correlation with tumor stages, stage III was substantially linked compared to stage I (P0.01). In conclusion, we referred to the potential to use XAGE1 to discriminate malignant ovarian tumors as a diagnostic biomarker. The connection of high XAGE 1 level with advanced ovarian cancer stages has also been established, supporting XAGE 1's proposed role in poor prognosis. Finally, finding the specific involvement of this gene in ovarian cancer and other kinds of malignancies may require further investigations.

Keywords: XAGE1; ovarian cancer.

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Biomarkers
  • Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics
  • Humans
  • Immunotherapy
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Ovarian Neoplasms* / diagnosis
  • Ovarian Neoplasms* / genetics
  • Ovarian Neoplasms* / therapy
  • RNA, Messenger
  • Testis*


  • Biomarkers
  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • RNA, Messenger