Hospital Performance for Gastrointestinal Bleeding Mortality, Length of Stay, and Complication Rates in the USA

Dig Dis Sci. 2022 Oct;67(10):4678-4686. doi: 10.1007/s10620-021-07345-z. Epub 2022 Jan 15.


Background: Hospitals are held accountable for quality metrics, through public reporting programs and by payers. However, little is known about hospital performance in GIB nationally.

Methods: A retrospective longitudinal analysis utilizing Vizient's database was performed to identify GIB hospitalizations across 349 hospitals from 2016 to 2018. The primary outcome was risk-adjusted mortality; secondary outcomes included risk-adjusted length of stay and complication rate. Trends in performance were characterized using quintiles, with analysis of concordance within hospitals and across hospitals over time. Pearson's correlation coefficients were performed to assess the relationship among metrics.

Results: 28.1% of hospitals had a steadily improving risk-adjusted mortality index from 2016 to 2018, while 15.5% were steadily worsening in mortality. For LOS, 25.2% of hospitals were improving, while 22.4% deteriorated. For complication rate, 22.9% of hospitals steadily improved, while 19.2% of hospitals deteriorated. Although many hospitals improved substantially in one outcome, they did not necessarily improve in all outcomes. Of the 98 hospitals that steadily improved in mortality from 2016 to 2018, only 8 out of 98 steadily improved in all three outcomes (8.3%). Across all 3 years, mortality was weakly correlated with LOS (r = 0.22, p < 0.001), but not with the rate of complications (r = 0.08, p = 0.12).

Conclusion: Hospital performance metrics for GIB, such as mortality, length of stay, and complication rate, are weakly correlated and thus likely measure different aspects of care. While many hospitals improved over time, few hospitals improved in all three metrics. Additionally, many hospitals are deteriorating over time, and further research is needed to determine which care processes are associated with better outcomes.

Keywords: Gastrointestinal bleeding; Hospitalization; Inpatient care; Quality metrics.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage* / epidemiology
  • Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage* / etiology
  • Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage* / therapy
  • Hospital Mortality
  • Hospitalization*
  • Hospitals
  • Humans
  • Length of Stay
  • Retrospective Studies
  • United States / epidemiology