Hesitant but vaccinated: assessing COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy among the recently vaccinated

J Behav Med. 2023 Apr;46(1-2):15-24. doi: 10.1007/s10865-021-00270-6. Epub 2022 Jan 15.


We administered a survey during the fifteen-minute wait time after the COVID-19 vaccine was given (N = 1475) to examine attitudes towards COVID-19 vaccines among adults who were vaccinated in Arkansas between April 22nd and July 6th, 2021. We found 60% of those who had just been vaccinated reported some level of hesitancy, including 10% who reported being "very hesitant." Hesitancy was not evenly distributed across sociodemographic groups (age, sex, race/ethnicity, and education) and was associated with whether a non-English language is spoken in the home, health care coverage, and flu vaccination over the past five years in bivariate analysis. Generalized ordered logistic regression results reveal associations between the log-ordered odds of COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy and age, sex, race/ethnicity, health care coverage, health literacy, and flu vaccination over the past five years. Surprisingly, a prior COVID-19 diagnosis was not significantly associated with COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy. These results can inform health care and communication strategies. Further attention to "hesitant adopters" can provide insights into the process of overcoming vaccine hesitancy that are critical to vaccine uptake.

Keywords: COVID-19; Vaccination; Vaccine hesitancy.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • COVID-19 Vaccines*
  • COVID-19* / prevention & control
  • Communication
  • Correlation of Data
  • Educational Status
  • Humans
  • Vaccination


  • COVID-19 Vaccines