MicroRNAs (miRNAs) act as oncogenes or tumor suppressors by suppressing the expression of target genes, some of which are engaged in angiogenic signaling pathways directly or indirectly. Tumor development and metastasis are dependent on angiogenesis, and it is the main reason for the poor prognosis of cancer patients. New blood vessels are formed from pre-existing vessels when angiogenesis occurs. Thus, it is essential to develop primary tumors and the spread of cancer to surrounding tissues. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs involved in various biological processes. They can bind to the 3'-UTR of their target genes and prevent them from expressing. MiRNAs control the activity of endothelial cells (ECs) through altering many biological pathways, which plays a key role in cancer progression and angiogenesis. Recent findings revealed that tumor-derived extracellular vesicles participated directly in the control of tumor angiogenesis by delivering miRNAs to ECs. miRNAs recently show great promise in cancer therapies to inhibit angiogenesis. In this study, we showed the miRNA-regulated signaling pathways in tumor angiogenesis with highlighting the anti-angiogenic therapy response and miRNA delivery methods that have been used to inhibit angiogenesis in both in vivo and in vitro studies.
Keywords: Breast cancer; MiRNA; MiRNA delivery; Therapy; Tumor angiogenesis; VEGF.
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