Years of potential life lost and productivity costs due to COVID-19 in Turkey: one yearly evaluation

Public Health. 2022 Feb;203:91-96. doi: 10.1016/j.puhe.2021.12.009. Epub 2021 Dec 11.


Objectives: The aim of the study is to calculate the years of life lost (YLL) and years of potential life lost (YPLL) due to COVID-19, according to age groups in Turkey in the first year of the pandemic and the cost of this burden.

Study design: This is an observational study with quantitative analyses.

Methods: YLL due to premature deaths was calculated for men and women by interpolating the number of deaths and the expected life expectancy. YPLL was calculated according to the age 65 years. Productivity loss is an estimation of the cost of time lost at work-related activities-in a scenario analysis-using predetermined wage rates with the human capital theory.

Results: Men lost 205,177 (67.57%) years of life, whereas women lost 125,330 (32.43%) years of life. The YLL average age in men was 63.66 ± 14.66 years, and the YLL average age in women was 66.07 ± 15.46 years. The average YLL age in men was younger than in women (P < 0.001). Men lost 65,180 (70.16%) YPLL, whereas women lost 27,723 (29.84%) YPLL. The average YPLL age in women was younger than in men (P < 0.001). During one year of the pandemic, premature death cost Turkey 227,396,694 USD, the cost for one premature death was 14,187 USD, and the cost of any year of life lost was 1261 USD.

Conclusion: YLL and YPLLs are very closely associated with COVID-19 deaths in the country. The economic dimensions of the pandemic with human losses are quite high.

Keywords: COVID-19; Productivity costs; Turkey; Years of life lost; Years of potential life lost.

Publication types

  • Observational Study

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • COVID-19*
  • Efficiency
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Life Expectancy
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • SARS-CoV-2
  • Turkey / epidemiology