The paracingulate sulcus is a tertiary sulcus formed during the third trimester. In healthy individuals paracingulate sulcation is more prevalent in the left hemisphere. The anterior cingulate and paracingulate gyri are focal points of neurodegeneration in behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD). This study aims to determine the prevalence and impact of paracingulate sulcation in bvFTD. Structural magnetic resonance images of individuals with bvFTD (n = 105, mean age 66.9 years), Alzheimer's disease (n = 92, 73.3), and healthy controls (n = 110, 62.4) were evaluated using standard protocol for hemispheric paracingulate sulcal presence. No difference in left hemisphere paracingulate sulcal frequency was observed between groups; 0.72, 0.79, and 0.70, respectively, in the bvFTD, Alzheimer's disease, and healthy control groups, (P = 0.3). A significant impact of right (but not left) hemispheric paracingulate sulcation on age at disease onset was identified in bvFTD (mean 60.4 years where absent vs. 63.8 where present [P = 0.04, Cohen's d = 0.42]). This relationship was not observed in Alzheimer's disease. These findings demonstrate a relationship between prenatal neuronal development and the expression of a neurodegenerative disease providing a gross morphological example of brain reserve.
Keywords: behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia; cingulate; paracingulate; sulcation.
© The Author(s) 2022. Published by Oxford University Press.