AMIGO2 contained in cancer cell-derived extracellular vesicles enhances the adhesion of liver endothelial cells to cancer cells

Sci Rep. 2022 Jan 17;12(1):792. doi: 10.1038/s41598-021-04662-1.


Adhesion of cancer cells to vascular endothelial cells in target organs is an initial step in cancer metastasis. Our previous studies revealed that amphoterin-induced gene and open reading frame 2 (AMIGO2) promotes the adhesion of tumor cells to liver endothelial cells, followed by the formation of liver metastasis in a mouse model. However, the precise mechanism underlying AMIGO2-promoted the adhesion of tumor cells and liver endothelial cells remains unknown. This study was conducted to explore the role of cancer cell-derived AMIGO2-containing extracellular vesicles (EVs) in the adhesion of cancer cells to human hepatic sinusoidal endothelial cells (HHSECs). Western blotting indicated that AMIGO2 was present in EVs from AMIGO2-overexpressing MKN-28 gastric cancer cells. The efficiency of EV incorporation into HHSECs was independent of the AMIGO2 content in EVs. When EV-derived AMIGO2 was internalized in HHSECs, it significantly enhanced the adhesion of HHSECs to gastric (MKN-28 and MKN-74) and colorectal cancer cells (SW480), all of which lacked AMIGO2 expression. Thus, we identified a novel mechanism by which EV-derived AMIGO2 released from AMIGO2-expressing cancer cells stimulates endothelial cell adhesion to different cancer cells for the initiate step of liver metastasis.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Cell Adhesion / genetics*
  • Endothelial Cells / physiology*
  • Extracellular Vesicles / metabolism*
  • Extracellular Vesicles / physiology*
  • Humans
  • Liver / cytology*
  • Neoplasms / genetics*
  • Neoplasms / pathology*
  • Nerve Tissue Proteins / metabolism*
  • Tumor Cells, Cultured


  • AMIGO2 protein, human
  • Nerve Tissue Proteins