High expression of S100A2 predicts poor prognosis in patients with endometrial carcinoma

BMC Cancer. 2022 Jan 18;22(1):77. doi: 10.1186/s12885-022-09180-5.


Background: S100A2, a member of the S100 protein family, is abnormally expressed and plays a vital role in multiple cancers. However, little is known about the clinical significance of S100A2 in endometrial carcinoma.

Methods: Clinicopathological data were obtained from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), Genotype-Tissue Expression (GTEx), Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO), and Clinical Proteomic Tumor Analysis Consortium (CPTAC). First, the expression and prognostic value of different S100 family members in endometrial carcinoma were evaluated. Subsequently, the Kaplan-Meier plotter and Cox regression analysis were used to assess the prognostic significance of S100A2, while the association between S100A2 expression and clinical characteristics in endometrial carcinoma was also analyzed using logistic regression. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve and a nomogram were constructed. The putative underlying cellular mechanisms were explored using Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment analysis and gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA).

Results: Our results revealed that S100A2 expression was significantly higher in endometrial carcinoma tissue than in non-cancerous tissue at both the mRNA and protein levels. Analysis of Kaplan-Meier plotter data revealed that patients with high S100A2 expression had shorter overall survival (OS) and disease specific survival (DSS) compared with those of patients with low S100A2 expression. Multivariate Cox analysis further confirmed that high S100A2 expression was an independent risk factor for OS in patients with endometrial carcinoma. Other clinicopathologic features found to be related to worse prognosis in endometrial carcinoma included age, clinical stage, histologic grade, and tumor invasion. Importantly, ROC analysis also confirmed that S100A2 has a high diagnostic value in endometrial carcinoma. KEGG enrichment analysis and GSEA revealed that the estrogen and IL-17 signaling pathways were significantly upregulated in the high S100A2 expression group, in which estrogen response, JAK-STAT3, K-Ras, and TNFα/NF-κB were differentially enriched.

Conclusions: S100A2 plays an important role in endometrial carcinoma progression and may represent an independent diagnostic and prognostic biomarker for endometrial carcinoma.

Keywords: Bioinformatics; Endometrial carcinoma; Overall survival; Prognosis; S100A2.

MeSH terms

  • Age Factors
  • Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics
  • Chemotactic Factors / genetics*
  • Databases, Genetic
  • Endometrial Neoplasms / genetics*
  • Endometrial Neoplasms / mortality*
  • Endometrial Neoplasms / pathology
  • Female
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic / genetics
  • Humans
  • Kaplan-Meier Estimate
  • Middle Aged
  • Neoplasm Grading
  • Neoplasm Invasiveness
  • Neoplasm Staging
  • Nomograms
  • Prognosis
  • Proportional Hazards Models
  • RNA, Messenger / metabolism
  • ROC Curve
  • Risk Factors
  • S100 Proteins / genetics*


  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • Chemotactic Factors
  • RNA, Messenger
  • S100 Proteins
  • S100A2 protein, human