4,5-Dimethoxycanthin-6-one is a novel LSD1 inhibitor that inhibits proliferation of glioblastoma cells and induces apoptosis and pyroptosis

Cancer Cell Int. 2022 Jan 18;22(1):32. doi: 10.1186/s12935-021-02434-5.

Abstract

Background: Glioblastoma is one of the most common fatal intracranial malignancies. Lysine-specific demethylase 1 (LSD1) reportedly has therapeutic effects on a variety of tumors. This study explored the therapeutic effect of LSD1 inhibition on glioblastoma cell lines and the possible underlying mechanisms.

Methods: The MTT assay was utilized to screen for the sensitivity of U87, U251 and T98G cells to 4, 5-dimethoxycarrageenin-6-one. qRT-PCR and western blot were used to measure the proliferation, apoptosis, and pyroptosis signaling pathway expression to observe the effect of LSD1 inhibition on U251 and T98G cells. Flow cytometry, immunofluorescence, immunohistochemistry, wound scratch, clone formation, and TUNEL assay were used to analyze the effects of 4, 5-dimethoxycanthin-6-one on glioblastoma cells. The effect of 4, 5-dimethoxycanthin-6-one was examined in vivo in BALB/c nude mice injected with U251 cells. HE staining was used to detect the histopathology of the tumor.

Results: LSD1 specifically catalyzes the demethylation of monomethylated and demethylated histone H3 lysine at position 4 (h3k4me1, h3k4me2, h3k4me3) and lysine at position 9 (h3k9me1). This regulated the transcriptional activity of proliferation, apoptosis, and pyroptosis signaling pathway genes. In vitro, the proliferation of glioblastoma cells was decreased in the 4, 5-dimethoxycanthin-6-one group. The expression of Caspase1 in glioblastoma cells treated with 4, 5-dimethoxycanthin-6-one increased, and the number of apoptotic cells increased. The tumor volume of mice injected with 4, 5-dimethoxycanthin-6-one decreased significantly.

Conclusion: 4, 5-Dimethoxycanthin-6-one could act as a novel inhibitor of LSD1 to regulate glioblastoma, which could inhibit the proliferation of U251 and T98G cells and induce their apoptosis and pyroptosis. It is a potential drug for the treatment of glioblastoma.

Keywords: 4, 5-Dimethoxycanthin-6-one; Apoptosis; Glioblastoma; LSD1; Pyroptosis.