Objective: To identify markers of Parkinson's disease (PD) related anxiety, using high density electroencephalography (hd-EEG).
Methods: 108 patients participated in the study. They were divided into two groups: with and without clinically relevant anxiety, according to their score on the Parkinson Anxiety Scale. Resting-state hd-EEG was recorded. Spectral and functional connectivity characteristics were compared between the two groups.
Results: Thirty-three patients (31%) had significant anxiety symptoms. In the spectral analysis, relative power in the alpha1 frequency band in the right prefrontal cortex was lower in patients with anxiety than without. Functional connectivity analysis showed a stronger connectivity between the left insula and several regions of the right prefrontal cortex in patients with anxiety than in those without.
Conclusion: This study shows the pivotal role of the insula and frontal cortex in the pathophysiology of anxiety in PD and extends the results of previous studies using magnetic resonance imaging or positron emission tomography imaging.
Keywords: Anxiety disorders; Electroencephalo- graphy; Functional connectivity; Spectral analysis.
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