The anatomical myofascial continuum between the neck and eyes

Clin Anat. 2022 Apr;35(3):340-346. doi: 10.1002/ca.23835. Epub 2022 Feb 1.


The posterior myofascial chain (PMC) or superficial back line encompasses a series of muscles interlinked by the deep fascia, extending from the foot to the fascial sheath of the eyeball. The deep cervical fascia of the neck, the epicranial aponeurosis of the head, and the fascial sheath of eyeball, form the proximal PMC. Although the literature has reported an anatomical myofascial continuum between the neck, head, and eyes, the anatomical descriptions vary substantially. Moreover, there is still no plausible functional interrelationship between the proximal structural myofascial links. Chronic neck pain is usually associated with a plethora of symptoms including craniofacial pain and oculomotor disorders. Understanding the anatomy of the proximal myofascial chain could help clinicians improvise treatment strategies for managing such painful head and neck disorders.

Keywords: connective tissues; epicranial aponeurosis; fascial sheath of eyeball; oculomotor control; posterior myofascial chain; tenon's capsule.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Chronic Pain*
  • Fascia* / anatomy & histology
  • Humans
  • Muscle, Skeletal / physiology
  • Neck
  • Neck Pain