Background: Automation of health care workflows has recently become a priority. This can be enabled and enhanced by a workflow monitoring tool (WMOT).
Objectives: We shared our experience in clinical workflow analysis via three cases studies in health care and summarized principles to design and develop such a WMOT.
Methods: The case studies were conducted in different clinical settings with distinct goals. Each study used at least two types of workflow data to create a more comprehensive picture of work processes and identify bottlenecks, as well as quantify them. The case studies were synthesized using a data science process model with focuses on data input, analysis methods, and findings.
Results: Three case studies were presented and synthesized to generate a system structure of a WMOT. When developing a WMOT, one needs to consider the following four aspects: (1) goal orientation, (2) comprehensive and resilient data collection, (3) integrated and extensible analysis, and (4) domain experts.
Discussion: We encourage researchers to investigate the design and implementation of WMOTs and use the tools to create best practices to enable workflow automation and improve workflow efficiency and care quality.
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