Treatment and follow-up of rare testis tumours

J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2022 Mar;148(3):667-671. doi: 10.1007/s00432-021-03890-2. Epub 2022 Jan 20.


Purpose: To provide recommendations for the follow-up of rare, clinically localised testis tumours, including Leydig, Sertoli or granulosa cell and spermatocytic tumours.

Methods: Medline and Embase searches to identify published clinical trials, cohort studies, reviews, clinical practise guidelines and meta-analyses to design expert opinion-based follow-up schedules.

Results: In four different systematic reviews, we previously identified 1375 men with Leydig, 435 with Sertoli, 239 with granulosa cell lesions and 146 with spermatocytic tumours. Local recurrence after testis-sparing surgery (TSS) was observed in 7%, < 1% and 5% of men with Leydig, Sertoli and granulosa cell tumours: no reports were available regarding recurrence after TSS in men with spermatocytic tumours. Distant recurrence was observed in 6%, 4%, 4% and 7% of the first four tumour types, respectively: metastasis was never reported in granulosa cell tumours of juvenile type. For patients with metastatic disease, complete response after surgical resection was reported in 10%, 18%, 43% and 4%. Complete response after chemotherapy was reported in 5%, 0%, 29% and 4%. There was no report of patients responding to radiotherapy alone.

Conclusions: We have collated the existing data about local and distant recurrence and response to treatment in men with rare testicular tumours and propose new recommendations for follow-up with cross-sectional imaging, stratified for each histological subtype.

Keywords: Granulosa cell; Interstitial cell tumour; Leydig cell; Sertoli cell; Spermatocytic tumour; Testis cancer.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology
  • Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery*
  • Orchiectomy / methods*
  • Prognosis
  • Rare Diseases / pathology
  • Rare Diseases / surgery*
  • Testicular Neoplasms / pathology
  • Testicular Neoplasms / surgery*