Purpose: To provide recommendations for the follow-up of rare, clinically localised testis tumours, including Leydig, Sertoli or granulosa cell and spermatocytic tumours.
Methods: Medline and Embase searches to identify published clinical trials, cohort studies, reviews, clinical practise guidelines and meta-analyses to design expert opinion-based follow-up schedules.
Results: In four different systematic reviews, we previously identified 1375 men with Leydig, 435 with Sertoli, 239 with granulosa cell lesions and 146 with spermatocytic tumours. Local recurrence after testis-sparing surgery (TSS) was observed in 7%, < 1% and 5% of men with Leydig, Sertoli and granulosa cell tumours: no reports were available regarding recurrence after TSS in men with spermatocytic tumours. Distant recurrence was observed in 6%, 4%, 4% and 7% of the first four tumour types, respectively: metastasis was never reported in granulosa cell tumours of juvenile type. For patients with metastatic disease, complete response after surgical resection was reported in 10%, 18%, 43% and 4%. Complete response after chemotherapy was reported in 5%, 0%, 29% and 4%. There was no report of patients responding to radiotherapy alone.
Conclusions: We have collated the existing data about local and distant recurrence and response to treatment in men with rare testicular tumours and propose new recommendations for follow-up with cross-sectional imaging, stratified for each histological subtype.
Keywords: Granulosa cell; Interstitial cell tumour; Leydig cell; Sertoli cell; Spermatocytic tumour; Testis cancer.
© 2021. The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature.