Aims: To study the association of daily coffee consumption with all-cause and cardiovascular (CV) mortality and major CV outcomes. In a subgroup of participants who underwent cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging, we evaluated the association between regular coffee intake and cardiac structure and function.
Methods and results: UK Biobank participants without clinically manifested heart disease at the time of recruitment were included. Regular coffee intake was categorized into three groups: zero, light-to-moderate (0.5-3 cups/day), and high (>3 cups/day). In the multivariate analysis, we adjusted for the main CV risk factors. We included 468 629 individuals (56.2 ± 8.1 years, 44.2% male), of whom 22.1% did not consume coffee regularly, 58.4% had 0.5-3 cups per day, and 19.5% had >3 cups per day. Compared to non-coffee drinkers, light-to-moderate (0.5-3 cups per day) coffee drinking was associated with lower risk of all-cause mortality [multivariate hazard ratio (HR) = 0.88, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.83-0.92; P < 0.001] and CV mortality (multivariate HR = 0.83, 95% CI: 0.74-0.94; P = 0.006), and incident stroke (multivariate HR = 0.79, 95% CI: 0.63-0.99 P = 0.037) after a median follow-up of 11 years. CMR data were available in 30 650 participants. Both light-to-moderate and high coffee consuming categories were associated with dose-dependent increased left and right ventricular end-diastolic, end-systolic and stroke volumes, and greater left ventricular mass.
Conclusion: Coffee consumption of up to three cups per day was associated with favourable CV outcomes. Regular coffee consumption was also associated with a likely healthy pattern of CMR metrics in keeping with the reverse of age-related cardiac alterations.
Keywords: Cardiac magnetic resonance; Cardiovascular health; Coffee consumption.
© The Author(s) 2022. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology.