Objectives: Myositis autoantibodies (MAs) were traditionally used as a diagnostic biomarker for idiopathic inflammatory myopathy (IIM). Its clinical utility had recently expanded to include interstitial lung disease (ILD) diagnosis. Depending on the patient cohort, MAs false positives can be common. Correlation between ANA indirect immunofluorescent (IIF) pattern and MAs may improve its positive predictive value (PPV). The aim of our study was to determine the PPV of MAs in IIM and ILD in a real-world patient cohort. We also assessed whether concordance between MAs and ANA IIF pattern can improve the PPV of positive MA results.
Methods: Patients with positive MAs and corresponding ANA IIF pattern were identified from Sutherland Centre of Immunology, New South Wales Health Pathology, Australia. The corresponding health records were reviewed to identify each patient's primary diagnosis. χ2 test was used to compare the PPV between MA-ANA concordant and discordant groups.
Results: Between January 2016 and July 2019, 118 patients were positive for at least one MA (mean age 66.7 years, 55% female). The most frequently detected autoantibodies were Ro52, anti-synthetase antibodies and PM-Scl. The PPV of MAs for IIM or ILD was 47.4%. The overall concordance rate of MAs and ANA IIF pattern was 70.2%. Patients with concordant MA-ANA results were more likely to have true clinical disease (64.1% vs 17.8%, P <0.001).
Conclusion: Myositis autoantibodies have a low PPV for IIM and ILD in a real-world patient cohort. A positive concordance with ANA IIF pattern can improve MA test accuracy.
Keywords: ANA pattern; idiopathic inflammatory myopathy; interstitial lung disease; myositis autoantibodies.
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