Aims: Studies of the gut microbiome have focused on its bacterial composition. We aimed to characterize the gut fungal microbiome (mycobiome) across pregnancy in women with and without type 1 diabetes.
Methods: Faecal samples (n = 162) were collected from 70 pregnant women (45 with and 25 without type 1 diabetes) across all trimesters. Fungi were analysed by internal transcribed spacer 1 amplicon sequencing. Markers of intestinal inflammation (faecal calprotectin) and intestinal epithelial integrity (serum intestinal fatty acid binding protein; I-FABP), and serum antibodies to Saccharomyces cerevisiae (ASCA) were measured.
Results: Women with type 1 diabetes had decreased fungal alpha diversity by the third trimester, associated with an increased abundance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae that was inversely related to the abundance of the anti-inflammatory butyrate-producing bacterium Faecalibacterium prausnitzii. Women with type 1 diabetes had higher concentrations of calprotectin, I-FABP and ASCA.
Conclusions: Women with type 1 diabetes exhibit a shift in the gut mycobiome across pregnancy associated with evidence of gut inflammation and impaired intestinal barrier function. The relevance of these findings to the higher rate of pregnancy complications in type 1 diabetes warrants further study.
Keywords: Faecalibacterium prausnitzii; Fungi; Gut; ITS1; Inflammation; Microbiome; Mycobiome; Pregnancy; Saccharomyces; Type 1 diabetes.
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