The significant variability in the clinical manifestations of COL2A1-associated skeletal dysplasias makes it necessary to conduct a clinical and genetic analysis of individual nosological variants, which will contribute to improving our understanding of the pathogenetic mechanisms and prognosis. We presented the clinical and genetic characteristics of 60 Russian pediatric patients with type II collagenopathies caused by previously described and newly identified variants in the COL2A1 gene. Diagnosis confirmation was carried out by new generation sequencing of the target panel with subsequent validation of the identified variants using automated Sanger sequencing. It has been shown that clinical forms of spondyloepiphyseal dysplasias predominate in childhood, both with more severe clinical manifestations (58%) and with unusual phenotypes of mild forms with normal growth (25%). However, Stickler syndrome, type I was less common (17%). In the COL2A1 gene, 28 novel variants were identified, and a total of 63% of the variants were found in the triple helix region resulted in glycine substitution in Gly-XY repeats, which were identified in patients with clinical manifestations of congenital spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia with varying severity, and were not found in Stickler syndrome, type I and Kniest dysplasia. In the C-propeptide region, five novel variants leading to the development of unusual phenotypes of spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia have been identified.
Keywords: COL2A1 gene; collagenopathy type II; exome sequencing; novel variants; skeletal dysplasia.