Glaucoma is a neurodegenerative disease that leads to damage of retinal ganglion cells and the optic nerve. Patients display altered antibody profiles and increased antibody titer, e.g., against S100B. To identify the meaning of these antibodies, animals were immunized with S100B. Retinal ganglion cell loss, optic nerve degeneration, and increased glial cell activity were noted. Here, we aimed to gain more insights into the pathophysiology from a proteomic point of view. Hence, rats were immunized with S100B, while controls received sodium chloride. After 7 and 14 days, retinae were analyzed through mass spectrometry and immunohistology. Using data-independent acquisition-based mass spectrometry, we identified more than 1700 proteins on a high confidence level for both study groups, respectively. Of these 1700, 43 proteins were significantly altered in retinae after 7 days and 67 proteins revealed significant alterations at 14 days. For example, α2-macroglobulin was found significantly increased not only by mass spectrometry analysis, but also with immunohistological staining in S100B retinae at 7 and 14 days. All in all, the identified proteins are often associated with the immune system, such as heat shock protein 60. Once more, these data underline the important role of immunological factors in glaucoma pathogenesis.
Keywords: DIA mass spectrometric analysis; HSP60; S100B; autoimmune; glaucoma; mass spectrometry; normal-tension; proteomics; α2-macroglobulin.