Rheumatoid Arthritis: Pathogenic Roles of Diverse Immune Cells

Int J Mol Sci. 2022 Jan 14;23(2):905. doi: 10.3390/ijms23020905.


Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic, systemic autoimmune disease associated with synovial tissue proliferation, pannus formation, cartilage destruction, and systemic complications. Currently, advanced understandings of the pathologic mechanisms of autoreactive CD4+ T cells, B cells, macrophages, inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, and autoantibodies that cause RA have been achieved, despite the fact that much remains to be elucidated. This review provides an updated pathogenesis of RA which will unveil novel therapeutic targets.

Keywords: autoantibodies; diagnosis; epidemiology; pathogenesis; precision medicine; rheumatoid arthritis.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Arthritis, Rheumatoid / diagnosis
  • Arthritis, Rheumatoid / etiology*
  • Arthritis, Rheumatoid / metabolism*
  • Arthritis, Rheumatoid / therapy
  • Biomarkers
  • Clinical Studies as Topic
  • Combined Modality Therapy
  • Disease Management
  • Disease Models, Animal
  • Disease Susceptibility / immunology*
  • Humans
  • Immune System / cytology
  • Immune System / immunology
  • Immune System / metabolism
  • Molecular Diagnostic Techniques
  • Prognosis
  • Treatment Outcome


  • Biomarkers