Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of metabolic indicators that increase the risk of diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Visceral obesity and factors derived from altered adipose tissue, adipokines, play critical roles in the development of metabolic syndrome. Although the adipokines leptin and adiponectin improve insulin sensitivity, others contribute to the development of glucose intolerance, including visfatin, fetuin-A, resistin, and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1). Leptin and adiponectin increase fatty acid oxidation, prevent foam cell formation, and improve lipid metabolism, while visfatin, fetuin-A, PAI-1, and resistin have pro-atherogenic properties. In this review, we briefly summarize the role of various adipokines in the development of metabolic syndrome, focusing on glucose homeostasis and lipid metabolism.
Keywords: adipokine; glucose intolerance; lipid metabolism; metabolic syndrome.