Discrimination of Adulterated Ginkgo Biloba Products Based on 2T2D Correlation Spectroscopy in UV-Vis Range

Molecules. 2022 Jan 10;27(2):433. doi: 10.3390/molecules27020433.


Ginkgo biloba is a popular medicinal plant widely used in numerous herbal products, including food supplements. Due to its popularity and growing economic value, G. biloba leaf extract has become the target of economically motivated adulterations. There are many reports about the poor quality of ginkgo products and their adulteration, mainly by adding flavonols, flavonol glycosides, or extracts from other plants. In this work, we developed an approach using two-trace two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2T2D COS) in UV-Vis range combined with multilinear principal component analysis (MPCA) to detect potential adulteration of twenty G. biloba food supplements. UV-Vis spectral data are obtained for 80% methanol and aqueous extracts in the range of 245-410 nm. Three series of two-dimensional correlation spectra were interpreted by visual inspection and using MPCA. The proposed relatively quick and straightforward approach successfully differentiated supplements adulterated with rutin or those lacking ginkgo leaf extract. Supporting information about adulteration was obtained from the difference between the DPPH radical scavenging capacity of both extracts and from chromatographic (HPLC-DAD) fingerprints of methanolic samples.

Keywords: Ginkgo biloba; UV-Vis spectroscopy; adulteration; food supplements; two-trace two-dimensional spectroscopy.

MeSH terms

  • Cheminformatics / methods
  • Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid
  • Chromatography, Reverse-Phase
  • Dietary Supplements / analysis*
  • Food Contamination / analysis*
  • Ginkgo biloba / chemistry*
  • Kaempferols / analysis
  • Poland
  • Principal Component Analysis
  • Quercetin / analysis
  • Rutin / analysis
  • Spectrophotometry, Ultraviolet / methods*


  • Kaempferols
  • Rutin
  • kaempferol
  • Quercetin