Tobacco use patterns and clinical outcomes in the T1D exchange

J Diabetes Complications. 2022 Feb;36(2):108128. doi: 10.1016/j.jdiacomp.2022.108128. Epub 2022 Jan 12.


Aims: This study examined associations between tobacco use and diabetes outcomes using the T1D Exchange Registry.

Methods: Adult participants (N = 933) completed standardized questionnaires including self-reported outcomes: past year serious hypoglycemic and diabetic ketoacidosis episodes, diabetes self-care, diabetes distress, and self-monitoring of blood glucose. Chart-extracted outcomes included HbA1c, nephrology and neuropathy diagnoses, and BMI. We examined the relation of tobacco use status (never, former, current) and frequency of use (daily versus less than daily) to these outcomes.

Results: The majority had never used tobacco (55%, n = 515); 27% (n = 252) were former users and 18% (n = 166) were current users (with 31% using daily). Tobacco status was associated with HbA1c, BMI, self-care, distress, and blood glucose monitoring frequency. Across most outcomes, current users evidenced worse values relative to never users, and former users were largely similar to never users. Daily use was associated with significantly worse outcomes on HbA1c, diabetes self-care, and distress scores relative to less than daily use.

Conclusions: These cross-sectional comparisons suggest that current tobacco use is associated with worse status on important clinical diabetes indicators. Former users did not evidence these deleterious associations. Findings point to potential diabetes-specific motivators that could inform tobacco cessation interventions.

Keywords: Cessation; Cigarette smoking; Diabetes.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Blood Glucose
  • Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring*
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1*
  • Humans
  • Tobacco Use


  • Blood Glucose