Purpose of review: The last decade has seen significant improvements in the management and understanding of the pathogenesis of CNS germ cell tumors (GCTs) by studies on genomic and epigenomic analyses, and published results of clinical trials. This review highlights the new findings to stay up-to-date on the knowledge and better inform the future directions.
Recent findings: CNS GCTs are characterized by either MAPK or PI3K pathway mutations. Germinoma has a striking global hypo-methylation, analogous to its hypothesized cell-of-origin; primordial germ cell. Micro RNA cluster mir-371-373 and mir-302/367 are characteristic of GCTs, which have potential for liquid biopsy. Clinical trials have revealed whole-ventricular irradiation for germinoma and local radiotherapy for localized non-germinomatous GCTs seem to be sufficient for tumor control. Advancements in basic, translational, and clinical studies are improving our understanding of this rare disease. Further studies are needed, especially in the field of radiomics, liquid biopsy, genomic structural variants, and treatment stratification, to better structure the future management scheme.
Keywords: Clinical trial; Germ cell tumor; Liquid biopsy; Prognosis.
© 2022. The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature.