Prostatic carcinoma (PC) was diagnosed in 43 dogs at the Michigan State University Veterinary Clinical Center (MSU-VCC) between 1978 and 1985. Of the 43 dogs with histologically confirmed PC, 19 (44.19%) had been castrated at least three years prior to the development of any prostatic disease. Seven of the castrates had been neutered at less than 12 months of age. Fourteen dogs (32.55%) were presented as intact males at the time of diagnosis. The remaining ten dogs (23.62%) had been castrated as treatment for presumptive prostatic disease prior to referral to the MSU-VCC. Dates of castration were known in all cases. In this study, therefore, castration at any age showed no sparing effect on the risk of development of PC in the dog. The etiology of PC in the dog may not be exclusively related to testicular hormones. Work in humans suggests that the adrenal and pituitary glands play a significant role in the disease. Preliminary work in dogs supports that nontesticular androgens exert a significant influence on the canine prostate.