Laparoscopic versus open pyloromyotomies: Outcomes and disparities in pyloric stenosis

J Pediatr Surg. 2022 May;57(5):932-936. doi: 10.1016/j.jpedsurg.2021.12.041. Epub 2022 Jan 13.


Purpose: Pyloromyotomy for hypertrophic pyloric stenosis (HPS) is one of the most common non-elective operations performed in the neonatal period. This project aims to explore outcomes of pyloromyotomy and compare differences between laparoscopic versus open pyloromyotomies in newborns diagnosed with HPS.

Methods: The Nationwide Readmissions Database (NRD) from 2010 to 2014 was queried to identify patients diagnosed with HPS that underwent repair.

Results: In total, 30,915 children (18% female) underwent pyloromyotomy for HPS. Median length of stay for index admission was 2 days. A total of 212 (0.7%) patients required a redo pyloromyotomy. 127 (60%) were performed during index admission. Readmission rate at 30 days was 3% and 5% at one year, and 22% presented to a different hospital. The most common indications for readmission were feeding intolerance (24%), dehydration (10%), and malnutrition (10%). Patients from low-income households were more likely to present with malnutrition and weight loss (9% vs 4%, p<0.001) and had higher readmission rates (8% vs 4%, p<0.001). Laparoscopic pyloromyotomies accounted for 10% (n = 2951) of cases. Those undergoing laparoscopy were less likely to have electrolyte disturbances (41% vs 54%, p<0.001) or weight loss (2% vs 11%, p<0.001) on admission. The rate of open conversion was 1%. Intraoperative perforation was not more common in laparoscopic than open cases. Open pyloromyotomies had higher 30-day readmission rates and more surgical site infections.

Conclusion: Complications from pyloromyotomies are rare. Although infrequent, the incidence of incomplete pyloromyotomy is higher than previously reported and more common with open approaches. Newborns from low-income households are more likely to present with advanced symptoms and have disproportionately higher rates of readmission.

Level of evidence: Level III TYPE OF STUDY: Treatment Study, retrospective.

Keywords: Disparities; Hypertrophic pyloric stenosis; Laparoscopy; Outcomes; Pediatric surgery; Pyloromyotomy.

MeSH terms

  • Child
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Laparoscopy*
  • Male
  • Malnutrition*
  • Pyloric Stenosis, Hypertrophic* / surgery
  • Pyloromyotomy* / adverse effects
  • Pylorus / surgery
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Weight Loss