Panayiotopoulos syndrome: Unusual clinical manifestations

Epilepsy Behav. 2022 Mar:128:108552. doi: 10.1016/j.yebeh.2022.108552. Epub 2022 Jan 18.


Purpose: We retrospectively analyzed the electroclinical features, treatment, and outcome of patients with Panayiotopoulos syndrome (PS) who presented with unusual clinical manifestations.

Method: A retrospective, descriptive, multicenter study was conducted evaluating 44 patients with PS who had seizures with an unusual semiology. Data from patients with PS seen at eight Argentine centers between April 2000 and April 2019 were collected.

Results: Twelve patients (29.2%) had ictal syncope or syncope-like epileptic seizures. Three children (7.3%) had recurrent episodes of vomiting. Four patients (9.7%) presented with urinary incontinence associated with autonomic signs and consciousness impairment. One child had hiccups with autonomic manifestations followed by eye deviation. One boy had episodes of laughter with autonomic symptoms followed by loss of consciousness. Six patients (14.6%) had hyperthermia without acute febrile illness with autonomic symptoms as the first manifestation. Six others (14.6%) had focal motor seizures characterized by eye and head deviation in four and eyelid blinking in two. Four patients (9.7%) had ictal headache as the initial manifestation followed by nausea and vomiting. Two children (4.8%) had their first seizure while asleep associated with cardiorespiratory arrest. Two children (4.8%) had oral automatisms, such as sucking and chewing. In two children (4.8%) coughing was the initial manifestation followed by emetic symptoms. One patient (2.3%) had vertigo with a sensation of fear, with eye deviation and unresponsiveness. One child started with continuous spikes and waves during slow sleep, behavior disturbances, and emetic symptoms.

Conclusion: In this study, evidence of the existence of unusual clinical cases of PS with typical EEG patterns was found. Outcome was excellent.

Keywords: Autonomic seizures; Childhood; Epilepsy; Focal; Panayiotopoulos syndrome; Self-limited.

Publication types

  • Multicenter Study

MeSH terms

  • Child
  • Electroencephalography*
  • Epilepsies, Partial* / complications
  • Epilepsies, Partial* / diagnosis
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Seizures / complications
  • Seizures / diagnosis
  • Syndrome