Adaptive mitochondrial genome functioning in ecologically different farm-impacted natural seedbeds of the endemic blue mussel Mytilus chilensis

Comp Biochem Physiol Part D Genomics Proteomics. 2022 Jun;42:100955. doi: 10.1016/j.cbd.2021.100955. Epub 2022 Jan 4.

Abstract

We assessed the adaptive contribution of the mitochondrial genes involved with the respiratory chain and oxidative phosphorylation of the blue mussel Mytilus chilensis, a native and heavily exploited species in the inner sea of Chiloé Island, southern Chile. The assembled mitochondrial transcriptome of individuals from two ecologically different farm-impacted natural seedbeds, Cochamó (41°S) and Yaldad (42°S), represented about 4.5% of the whole de novo transcriptome of the species and showed location and tissue (gills, mantle) specific expression differences in 13 protein-coding mitochondrial genes. The RNA-Seq analysis detected differences in the number of up-regulated mitogenes between individuals from Cochamó (7) and Yaldad (11), some being tissue-specific (ND4L and COX2). However, the analysis did not detect transcripts-per-million (TPM = 0) of ND2 and ND5 in gills and ATP6 in mantle samples from Cochamó. Likewise, for ND6 and ATP8 in any sample. Several monomorphic location-specific mitochondrial genetic variants were detected in samples from Cochamó (78) and Yaldad (207), representing standing genetic variability to optimize mitochondrial functioning under local habitats. Overall, these mitochondrial transcriptomic differences reflect the impact of environmental conditions on the mitochondrial genome functioning and offer new markers to assess the effects on mussel fitness of habitat translocations, a routine industry practice. Likewise, these mitochondrial markers should help monitor and maintain adaptive population differences in this keystone and heavily exploited native species.

Keywords: Differential expression; Mitochondrial transcriptome; Mytilus chilensis; Natural seedbeds; Transcriptomic genetic variants.