Background: The direct anterior approach (DAA) and posterior approach (PA) are two of the most common surgical approaches used for total hip arthroplasty (THA) worldwide. The curved anatomical collum femoris-preserving (CFP) stem was designed to preserve the bone of the femoral neck and allow physiologic load transfer along the trabecular systems, which may better restore hip biomechanics, improve triplanar stem stability and improve the long-term survival rate. We believe this study will demonstrate whether the DAA is suitable for THA with CFP stems.
Methods: The data of patients who underwent primary THA with CFP stems from January 2010 to December 2015 were retrospectively analysed. These patients were divided into two groups (group A, DAA; group B, PA). The approach was selected by the surgeon. The demographic characteristics, preoperative diagnoses, preoperative Harris hip score, preoperative range of motion, postoperative complications, and radiologic measurements (neck-shaft angle, coronal alignment, sagittal alignment, stress shielding, anteversion, neck-preserving ratio, acetabular anteversion, acetabular inclination angle, acetabular depth, anterior-posterior offset, lateral offset, difference in leg length) were recorded for all patients.
Results: In this study, a total of 248 patients (185 male and 63 female) were included. No significant differences were found between group A and group B in terms of general patient information and radiologic measurements. However, the rate of nerve injury in group A (7/5.5%) was significantly higher than that in group B (1/0.8%) (p = 0.037). At 1 month after surgery, we found a significant difference between the two groups in the Harris hip score (HHS) (71.03 ± 8.04 in group A, 68.39 ± 8.37 in group B, P = 0.014) and forgotten joint score (FJS-12) (50.78 ± 7.57 in group A, 47.68 ± 7.34 in group B, P = 0.001). At 1 year after surgery, the mean FJS-12 score in group A (68.78 ± 7.54) was higher than that in group B (58.84 ± 8.91) (P < 0.001). At 5 years after surgery, the mean FJS-12 score in group A (73.38 ± 7.21) was higher than that in group B (67.16 ± 9.12) (P < 0.001). Post hoc analysis of the 1-month, 1-year, and 5-year postoperative FJS-12 scores using multiple linear regression analysis revealed that an excellent HHS led to good patient satisfaction at each time point.
Conclusion: In summary, unlike a "standard" femoral stem, whose alignment might be affected by the surgical approach, alignment of the CFP stem is independent from the surgical approach. Even though the DAA had a higher nerve injury rate, nerve injury from the DAA did not typically cause severe dysfunction of the lower extremity. Therefore, decisions regarding the surgical approach for patients undergoing THA with CFP stems can be made primarily based on the preference of the surgeon.
Keywords: Collum femoris preserving; Direct anterior approach; Outcomes; Posterior approach; Total hip arthroplasty.
© 2022. The Author(s).