Contrast-enhanced and microvascular ultrasound imaging features of testicular lymphoma: report of five cases and review literature

BMC Urol. 2022 Jan 24;22(1):6. doi: 10.1186/s12894-022-00957-1.


Background: To retrospectively investigate the grey-scale, Doppler, contrast-enhanced and microvascular ultrasound of five patients with primary testicular lymphoma of our institute through review literature analysis.

Methods: From January to November 2020, five patients with primary testicular lymphoma confirmed by histology were preoperatively investigated with a standardized sonographic protocol including contrast-enhanced and microvascular ultrasound.

Results: Conventional ultrasound showed localized hypoechogenicity represented with solitary (2 of 5), multiple lesions (2 of 5), or entire testicular involvement (1 of 5). Increased blood flow appeared in color Doppler ultrasound with straight vascular sign (4 of 5). In contrast-enhanced ultrasound images confirmed this pattern (4 of 5) and presented hyper enhancement with enlarged range. On microvascular ultrasound imagings, all lesions were presented with straight and parallel course of intralesional vessels (5 of 5).

Conclusions: Here, we identified an increased vascularity with enlarged range on contrast-enhanced ultrasound along with a linear nonbranching pattern by vascular sign on microvascular ultrasonographic of testicular lymphoma.

Keywords: Contrast-enhanced ultrasound; Lymphoma; Microvascular ultrasound; Testicle.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Contrast Media*
  • Humans
  • Lymphoma / diagnostic imaging*
  • Male
  • Microvessels
  • Middle Aged
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Testicular Neoplasms / diagnostic imaging*
  • Ultrasonography / methods


  • Contrast Media