Degradation of nuclear components via different autophagy pathways

Trends Cell Biol. 2022 Jul;32(7):574-584. doi: 10.1016/j.tcb.2021.12.008. Epub 2022 Jan 20.


Eukaryotic cells have evolved different modes of autophagy, including macroautophagy and microautophagy, to deliver their own components to lysosomes or vacuoles for degradation. While an increasing body of research has established that autophagy plays pivotal roles for the maintenance and regulation of various cellular constituents, recent studies have begun to reveal that parts of the nucleus, for example, nucleus-derived vesicles and nuclear proteins, also become targets of autophagic degradation in different physiological or pathological contexts, including nutrient deprivation, defective nuclear pore complex (NPC) assembly, DNA damage, cellular senescence, and oncogenic insults. Here, we overview our current knowledge on the mechanisms and physiological roles of these 'nucleophagy' pathways and discuss their possible interplays and remaining issues.

Keywords: autophagy; intracellular degradation; lysosomes; nuclear pore complexes; nucleus; vacuoles.

Publication types

  • Review
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Autophagy* / physiology
  • Cell Nucleus* / metabolism
  • Humans
  • Lysosomes / metabolism
  • Nuclear Proteins / metabolism


  • Nuclear Proteins