Diversity and Drug Resistance of Filamentous Fungi Isolated from the Fresh Raspberries

Indian J Microbiol. 2022 Mar;62(1):146-151. doi: 10.1007/s12088-021-00966-y. Epub 2021 Aug 15.


Fungi are one of the most widely distributed microorganisms in the environment, including food such as fruits, vegetables and other crops, posing a potential threat to food safety and human health. The aim of this study was to determine the diversity, intensity and drug resistance of potentially pathogenic filamentous fungi isolated from the fresh raspberries (Rubus idaeus L.). A total of 50 strains belonging to genera Fusarium, Cladosporium, Alternaria, Penicillium, Mucor, Rhizopus, Aspergillus and Acremonium were tested for drug resistance against 11 antifungals by disc diffusion and gradient strips methods. The average mycological contamination in the examined samples of raspberries amounted to 4.34 log CFU/g. The Cladosporium was isolated from all tested samples, followed by Alternaria and Fusarium with a frequency of 61% and 34%, respectively. The highest level of drug resistance was observed for Acremonium genera and Fusarium strains recorded a wide variation in drug resistance as revealed by susceptibility with amphotericin B and voriconzole with MICs ranged from 0.5-4 µg/ml and posaconazole with MICs ranging from 3-8 µg/ml. All fungal strains showed 100% resistance to caspofungin, fluconazole and flucytosine with both the methods, and 100% resistance to micafungin and anidulafungin in the gradient strip method.

Keywords: Drug resistance; Filamentous fungi; Food safety; Raspberries.