Background: Nanotechnology is considered a new and rapidly emerging area in the pharmaceutical and medicinal field. Nanoparticles, as drug delivery systems, impart several advantages concerning improved efficacy as well as reduced adverse drug reactions.
Main body: Different types of nanosystems have been fabricated including carbon nanotubes, paramagnetic nanoparticles, dendrimers, nanoemulsions, etc. Physicochemical properties of the starting materials and the selected method of preparation play a significant aspect in determining the shape and characteristics of the developed nanoparticles. Dispersion of preformed polymers, coacervation, polymerization, nano-spray drying and supercritical fluid technology are among the most extensively used techniques for the preparation of nanocarriers. Particle size, surface charge, surface hydrophobicity and drug release are the main factors affecting nanoparticles physical stability and biological performance of the incorporated drug. In clinical practice, many nanodrugs have been used for both diagnostic and therapeutic applications and are being investigated for various indications in clinical trials. Nanoparticles are used for the cure of kidney diseases, tuberculosis, skin conditions, Alzheimer's disease, different types of cancer as well as preparation of COVID-19 vaccines.
Conclusion: In this review, we will confer the advantages, types, methods of preparation, characterization methods and some of the applications of nano-systems.
Keywords: Applications; Characterization; Delivery systems; Fabrication; Nanotechnology.
© The Author(s) 2022.