Objectives: Both polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and autoimmune thyroiditis (AT) are reported to be common endocrinopathies. In recent years the number of publications assessing the coexistence of these two disease entities in adult women has been growing. There are many suggestions regarding pathophysiological mechanisms that can cause the relationship between AT and PCOS. However, there is still a lack of research among adolescent girls. The aim of the study was to analyze the occurrence of autoimmune thyroiditis in adolescent girls with PCOS.
Material and methods: The study group included 80 girls diagnosed with PCOS (chronological age: 16.54 ± 1.00 years, BMI: 22.80 ± 3.27 kg/m2), and the control group - 64 regularly menstruating girls (chronological age: 16.71 ± 0.63 years, BMI: 24.8 ± 5.2 kg/m2). The thyroid function and morphology were assessed based on the concentration of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxine (fT4), anti thyroid peroxidase (anti-TPO), anti-thyroglobulin (anti-TG) antibodies and ultrasound scan of the thyroid gland.
Results: AT was diagnosed in 18 (22.5%) girls from the study group and nine (14.06%) from the control group (p > 0.05). Positive anti-TPO titer was observed more often in the study group [21 patients (26.25%)] than in the control group [9 girls (14.06%)] (p = 0.054). Moreover, an abnormal ultrasound scan of the thyroid gland characteristic for AT was found in 18 girls from the study group (22.50%) and 8 girls from the control group (12.50%) (p > 0.05).
Conclusions: The results of the analyzed studies do not confirm a significant relationship between PCOS and AT in adolescent girls. However, in the group of girls with PCOS, autoimmune process exponents were more frequent (anti-TPO), reaching the borderline level of statistical significance.
Keywords: adolescent girls; autoimmune thyroiditis; polycystic ovary syndrome.