Testing of new instrument for measuring quality and diversity of nutrition in pregnancy

Ginekol Pol. 2023;94(1):73-78. doi: 10.5603/GP.a2021.0227. Epub 2022 Jan 24.


Objectives: Our aim was construction and development of a new questionnaire for assessing the quality and diversity of nutrition of pregnant women.

Material and methods: This was a cross-sectional study. The novel questionnaire was developed through eight steps according with internationally accepted guidelines for questionnaire development. The questionnaire with 18 questions and answers according to the Likert's scale was created and called Balkan Food Quality and Diversity in Pregnancy Questionnaire-18 (BFQDPQ-18). Reliability testing and factor analysis of BFQDPQ-18 were carried out on a sample of 382 women in the third trimester of pregnancy whose pregnancy control and monitoring were performed at the Clinic for Gynecology and Obstetrics of the Clinical Center in Kragujevac, Serbia.

Results: The first test of reliability indicated high levels of internal consistency, with the Cronbach's alpha of 0.85 of the BFQDPQ-18. After dividing the BFQDPQ-18 into two parts of nine questions each by split-half method, the Cronbach's alphas were 0.799 and 0.716. The Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy (KMO) was 0.878, and the Bartlett's test of sphericity: 1,892.206, p < 0.000. Factor analysis revealed four factors explained in total 51.99% of the variance: mean meal and snack, foods with a low degree of industrial processing, subjective assessment of dietary quality and starchy foods.

Conclusions: The final version of the BFQDPQ-18 showed high reliability and good psychometric properties, so we believe it could be useful instrument for assessing the quality of nutrition of pregnant women.

Keywords: dietary diversity; dietary quality; pregnancy; questionnaire.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Nutritional Status*
  • Pregnancy
  • Psychometrics
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Surveys and Questionnaires