Neonatal chylous effusions are rare entity with limited evidence-based management. We conducted a retrospective review of neonates admitted to King Edward Memorial and Princess Margaret/Perth Children's Hospital over 20 years with laboratory-confirmed chylous effusions. A total of 51 infants with chylous effusion were identified. Median gestational age and birth weight were 35.5 weeks and 2620 grams respectively. Congenital [27/ 51] and acquired [24/51] cases were included. Antenatal interventions were performed in 17/22 with antenatal hydrops and 50/51 needed postnatal drains. Effusions were monitored with serial (≥2) chest ultrasounds in 29/51 infants and multiple (≥5) x-rays in 45/51 infants. Median duration of mechanical ventilation, oxygen requirement, and hospital stay was 294.5 hours, 400 hours, and 49 days respectively. 39/51 received medium chain triglyceride (MCT) diet while 8/51 received octreotide. Six infants died during hospital stay. 12/19 had normal developmental assessment at one-year. The acquired group had higher number of xrays done, need for MCT diet and inotropes, and hospital stay vs congenital group. Duration of drains, radiological investigations and immunoglobulin administration were higher in neonates who received octreotide. Syndromic association, duration of ventilation and oxygenation were risk factors for mortality. In our setting, neonatal chylous effusions are associated with significant morbidity and mortality.
Keywords: chylous effusion; neonate; octreotide.
Copyright by International Society of Lymphology.