Background and objectives: The effect of sex on longitudinal health-related quality of life remains unknown in CKD. Here we assess differences in the sex-specific evolution of health-related quality of life in older men and women with advanced CKD.
Design, setting, participants, & measurements: The European Quality Study on Treatment in Advanced Chronic Kidney Disease is a European observational prospective cohort study in referred patients with CKD and an incident eGFR<20 ml/min per 1.73 m2 who are ≥65 years of age not on dialysis. Health-related quality of life was measured using the 36-Item Short Form Survey at 3- to 6-month intervals between April 2012 and September 2020, providing Physical Component Summary and Mental Component Summary scores. Trajectories were modeled by sex using linear mixed models, and sex differences in health-related quality-of-life slope were explored.
Results: We included 5345 health-related quality-of-life measurements in 1421 participants. At baseline, women had considerably lower mean Physical Component Summary (42) and Mental Component Summary (60) compared with men (Physical Component Summary: 55; Mental Component Summary: 69; P<0.001). However, during follow-up, Physical Component Summary and Mental Component Summary scores declined approximately twice as fast in men (Physical Component Summary: 2.5 per year; 95% confidence interval, 1.8 to 3.1; Mental Component Summary: 2.7 per year; 95% confidence interval, 2.0 to 3.4) compared with in women (Physical Component Summary: 1.1 per year; 95% confidence interval, 0.1 to 2.0; Mental Component Summary: 1.6 per year; 95% confidence interval, 0.7 to 2.6). This difference was partly attenuated after adjusting for important covariates, notably eGFR decline. Higher serum phosphate, lower hemoglobin, and the presence of preexisting diabetes were associated with lower Physical Component Summary and Mental Component Summary scores in men but to a lesser extent in women.
Conclusions: Among older men and women with advanced CKD, women had lower health-related quality of life at baseline, but men experienced a more rapid decline in health-related quality of life over time.
Keywords: aged; chronic kidney disease; quality of life; sex differences.
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