Inflammatory agents, microbial products, or stromal factors pre-activate or prime neutrophils to respond to activating stimuli in a rapid and aggressive manner. Primed neutrophils exhibit enhanced chemotaxis, phagocytosis, and respiratory burst when stimulated by secondary activating stimuli. We previously reported that Triggering Receptor Expressed on Myeloid cells-1 (TREM-1) mediates neutrophil effector functions such as increased superoxide generation, transepithelial migration, and chemotaxis. However, it is unclear whether TREM-1 is required for the process of priming itself or for primed responses to subsequent stimulation. To investigate this, we utilized in vitro and in vivo differentiated neutrophils that were primed with TNF-α and then stimulated with the particulate agonist, opsonized zymosan (OpZ). Bone marrow progenitors isolated from WT and Trem-1-/- mice were transduced with estrogen regulated Homeobox8 (ER-Hoxb8) fusion transcription factor and differentiated in vitro into neutrophils following estrogen depletion. The resulting neutrophils expressed high levels of TREM-1 and resembled mature in vivo differentiated neutrophils. The effects of priming on phagocytosis and oxidative burst were determined. Phagocytosis did not require TREM-1 and was not altered by priming. In contrast, priming significantly enhanced OpZ-induced oxygen consumption and superoxide production in WT but not Trem-1-/- neutrophils indicating that TREM-1 is required for primed oxidative burst. TREM-1-dependent effects were not mediated during the process of priming itself as priming enhanced degranulation, ICAM-1 shedding, and IL-1ß release to the same extent in WT and Trem-1-/- neutrophils. Thus, TREM-1 plays a critical role in primed phagocytic respiratory burst and mediates its effects following priming.
Keywords: EPR spectroscopy; ER-Hoxb8 neutrophils; TNF-α; receptors.
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