Emergency Department Management of Hypertension in the Context of COVID-19

Curr Hypertens Rep. 2022 Feb;24(2):37-43. doi: 10.1007/s11906-022-01169-6. Epub 2022 Jan 25.


Purpose of review: This review describes the relationship between COVID-19 and hypertension (HTN), and considerations for emergency medicine providers in the management of hypertensive patients during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Recent findings: Hypertensive patients with COVID-19 have a higher risk of severe disease/complications, hospitalizations, intensive care unit (ICU) admissions, and mortality than non-hypertensive patients. Studies have also shown the importance of consideration of various demographic factors (such as older age) and socioeconomic factors that may confound these relationships. Despite concerns at the start of the pandemic that RAAS inhibiting antihypertension medications may contribute to worsened outcomes in COVID-19 patients, subsequent research has shown that use of ACEi/ARBs is associated with neutral or even improved COVID-19 outcomes. Socioeconomic factors must also be considered including patients' potential delay of health care due to fear of contracting COVID-19, loss of health insurance, and barriers to accessing primary care appointments for post-ED follow-up care. While there is mixed evidence on biological considerations for HTN care during the COVID-19 pandemic, the pandemic has undoubtedly been a major stressor and barrier to effective chronic disease management. Emergency medicine and other providers should consider this when evaluating acute care patients with a history of HTN or newly elevated blood pressure.

Keywords: COVID-19; Chronic disease management; Emergency department; Hypertension; Socioeconomic factors.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists / therapeutic use
  • Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors / therapeutic use
  • COVID-19*
  • Emergency Service, Hospital
  • Humans
  • Hypertension* / complications
  • Hypertension* / drug therapy
  • Pandemics
  • SARS-CoV-2


  • Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists
  • Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors