The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of replacing soybean meal with peanut meal on milk production, chemical and fatty acid composition, nutritional quality indicators of the lipid fraction, and the economic viability of the diets. Twelve crossbred cows in the initial lactation third, with a bodyweight of 545 ± 37 kg and average milk production of 28 kg/day of milk were distributed in a 4 × 4, triple Latin square design. The treatments consisted of diets with substitution levels of soybean meal for peanut meal (0; 330; 670; and 1000 g/kg in DM). The peanut meal inclusion to replace soybean meal in the diets provided a decreasing linear effect for the protein (P = 0.02) and casein (P = 0.01) concentration in milk. Milk production, total solids concentration, feed efficiency, fatty acid composition, and nutritional quality indicators of the milk lipid fraction were not influenced by the substitution levels. The diet cost per kg DM decreased due to the peanut meal inclusion as a protein source. The partial or total substitution of soybean meal for peanut meal in the feedlot cows diet reduces the cost of feed, without affecting milk production and total solids yield.
Keywords: Arachis hypogaea; Food cost; Protein source.
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